In study 1 students considered vocational training and its benefits. They entertained positive fantasies about the benefits of vocational training. This paired up with negative reflections on what stood in their way. This convinced the students to want to take the vocational training.

In study 2 students examined the problems of an influx of immigrants. This negative fantasy paired with positive reflections on how to prevent these problems. After this reflection the students viewed the immigrants as being more beneficial.

It will help you reach your goal if you see what stands between you and your goal.

Citation: Gabriele Oettingen, Doris Mayer, Jennifer S. Thorpe, Solvig Lorenz “Turning Fantasies About Positive and Negative Futures into Self-Improvement Goals” Motivation and Emotion 29(4):236-266 · December 2005