“Free will” means, “I am in charge of my actions even when my life’s circumstances are difficult.

A group of 116 undergrads rated how much free will they believed they have. Later, they completed a proof-reading challenge. The students who said they had more free will found more mistakes in the text and in less time.

At the end of the semester, students with stronger free will had higher grades.


Feldman, G.; Chandrashekar, S.; and Wong, K. (2016). The freedom to excel: Belief in free will predicts better academic performance Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 377-383 DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.043